Lymphoma is a broad category of cancers that originate in the lymphatic system. It's generally divided into two main types: Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Each of these categories contains multiple subtypes. Below is a list of the most common types of lymphoma along with brief descriptions:

Hodgkin Lymphoma (HL):

Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma (cHL): The most common form of HL, it's characterized by the presence of Reed-Sternberg cells. Subtypes include:

  • Nodular sclerosis cHL: The most common cHL subtype, often found in the chest lymph nodes.
  • Mixed cellularity cHL: Often found in older adults and is associated with the Epstein-Barr virus in many cases.
  • Lymphocyte-rich cHL: A rare subtype with a high number of lymphocytes.
  • Lymphocyte-depleted cHL: Also a rare subtype, more common in people with HIV.
  • Nodular Lymphocyte-Predominant Hodgkin Lymphoma (NLPHL): A rarer form of HL, distinct from cHL, often slower growing.

Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL)

This is a diverse group with more than 60 subtypes, but some of the most common include:

  • Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL): The most common NHL, aggressive but often curable.
  • Follicular Lymphoma: A slow-growing or indolent form of NHL that originates in B-cells.
  • Mantle Cell Lymphoma: A rarer and usually aggressive NHL that arises from B-cells in the mantle zone of the lymph node.
  • Burkitt Lymphoma: A very aggressive form of NHL, often linked to the Epstein-Barr virus.

Marginal Zone Lymphomas

These are slow-growing B-cell lymphomas and include:

  • Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma: Often linked to chronic infections or inflammatory conditions.
  • Nodal marginal zone lymphoma: Rare, involves lymph nodes.
  • Splenic marginal zone lymphoma: Involves the spleen and may be found in the blood.
  • Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia/Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma (CLL/SLL): These two are different manifestations of the same disease, with CLL present in the blood and bone marrow and SLL in the lymph nodes.

T-cell lymphomas:

Arise from T-cells and include several subtypes like:

  • Peripheral T-cell lymphoma: A broad category that encompasses various T-cell lymphomas.
  • Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL)
  • Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma: Often linked to the HTLV-1 virus.
  • Cutaneous T-cell lymphomas: Affect the skin and include subtypes like mycosis fungoides and Sézary syndrome.
  • Primary Central Nervous System (CNS) Lymphoma: An aggressive lymphoma that starts in the brain or spinal cord.
  • Primary Mediastinal B-Cell Lymphoma: Originates in the area of the chest between the lungs.
  • Waldenström Macroglobulinemia (also called lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma): A slow-growing type that affects B-cells.
  • Lymphoblastic Lymphoma: Can arise from either T-cells or B-cells and is aggressive.

This list provides a general overview, but there are many more subtypes of lymphoma, each with its unique characteristics and clinical features. The diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis often depend on the specific subtype and stage of the disease.

Symptoms of lymphoma

The symptoms of lymphoma can vary depending on the type of lymphoma and the stage of the disease. However, some common symptoms include:

  • Enlarged lymph nodes in the neck, armpits, or groin
  • Fatigue
  • Night sweats
  • Fever
  • Weight loss
  • Abdominal pain